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Region of interest
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Atrophic bone in the maxillary arch
The bone in the maxillary arch is atrophic. The buccolingual width and height of the alveolar bone is significantly reduced.
1. Retained root fragments at sites 15, 23, and 27
Three small root fragments are embedded within the alveolar crest at sites 15, 23, and 27. Removal may be considered at the time of regional implant placement.
Axial views of the maxillary arch: atrophic, normal bone
These axial cross-sectional images demonstrate the normal overall bone density of the maxilla. Note the atrophy of the residual ridge of the anterior maxillary arch.
Clear right maxillary sinus
The mucosal thickness in the right maxillary sinus is within the range of normal. There are no impediments to a potential right maxillary sinus lift.
Clear left maxillary sinus
The mucosal thickness in the left maxillary sinus is within the range of normal. There are no impediments to a potential left maxillary sinus lift.
2. Possible odontogenic cyst or tumor in right mandibular ramus
A well-defined, corticated radiolucency is partially captured in this image volume within the right mandibular ramus. Mild buccolingual expansion is noted. Internal calcification is noted within the lesion. This may reflect an odontogenic cyst or cystic tumor. No further comment can be made based on this image. Additional radiographic examination of this area is required for a accurate interpretation.
3. Calcified stylohyoid ligaments
The stylohyoid ligaments are partially calcified bilaterally. This is an incidental finding with no clinical significance.
4. Persistent ossiculum terminale + moderate degenerative joint disease of the cervical spine
A fragment of bone is present between the odontoid process of the C2 vertebra and the base of the clivus. This bone demonstrates a cortical lining and an internal trabecular bone pattern and appears to be fused with the clivus of the occipital bone. These findings likely represent a persistent ossiculum terminale, which reflects a developmental anomaly. Osteophytes, subchondral cyst formation, joint space loss, and mild subchondral sclerosis are present within the articulating regions of the atlas and odontoid process, which reflects the presence of mild cervical degenerative joint disease.
5. Intracranial calcification of internal carotid arteries
Calcifications are visible lining the walls of the petrous, cavernous, and ophthalmic segments of the right and left internal carotid arteries. These findings may represent signs of atherosclerosis. The extent of these calcifications suggests medical referral may be considered.
6. Dense bone island in clivus
A dense bone island is present within the left side of the clivus. This dense bone island demonstrates no effects on its surrounding structures. This is a non-significant incidental finding.