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Temporomandibular joints (TMJ)
Region of interest
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No evidence of degenerative joint disease in TMJs
The osseous structures of the bilateral temporomandibular joints appear normal radiographically. Their articular cortices appear intact, and the internal trabecular architecture exhibits a normal density and organization. There are no signs of degenerative joint disease.
Normally positioned left and right TMJs in mandibular closed position
In the mandibular closed position, the left and right condylar heads are centrally positioned in their glenoid fossae, which is normal. The joint space also appears within the range of normal, and there are no signs of ankylosis.
Limited condylar translation
In the mandibular open position, the left and right condylar heads remain mostly within their glenoid fossae. These findings suggest that only rotational opening of the mandible is possible, and the absence of significant condylar translation.
1. Coronoid hyperplasia resulting in limited condylar translation
The bilateral coronoid processes appear elongated and hyperplastic. Upon mandibular opening, the coronoid processes abut the posteromedial surfaces of the zygomatic arches, just posterior to the zygomaticotemporal sutures. This is a rare anatomic variant that results in mechanical restriction to mandibular opening.
Developing tooth 18
Tooth 18 is vertically oriented and appears to be developing normally. The residual follicle around the crown of this tooth appears within the range of normal, and no signs of root resorption are evident in tooth 17.
Developing tooth 28
Tooth 28 is vertically oriented and appears to be developing normally. The residual follicle around the crown of this tooth appears normal radiographically. There is no radiographic evidence of root resorption in the adjacent tooth 27.
2. Mild mucositis of left maxillary sinus
The left maxillary sinus exhibits mild mucositis, which represents an incidental finding with no clinical significance.
3. Concha bullosae
The left and right middle nasal conchae contain air. These represent concha bullosae and are incidental findings with no clinical significance.
4. Mild adenoid hyperplasia
The pharyngeal tonsils are slightly enlarged, which is an appearance consistent with mild adenoid hyperplasia. In an adolescent patient, this represents an incidental finding with no clinical significance.
5. Dural calcifications
Linear calcifications are present superior to the temporal petrous ridges bilaterally. This likely represents calcification of the petroclinoid ligaments, which is a non-significant incidental finding.